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What is known about the topic
Cross cutting issues are found in all the courses. however we have stand alone course for instance

A) Under school of natural science there were courses like BIO 461community ecology and ecological methods, CHEM 490 Chemistry and the environment.

. AIM: This course provides knowledge of the ecological methods used in the study of ecology and conservation of indigenous plant and animal communities.
By the end of the course a student should be able to;
Discuss and model functions of communities; evaluate the effects of introduced species on native communities; describe ecological community; describe sampling methods; design research surveys and experiments; analyse research data using statistical methods; test hypotheses and interpret; develop research proposal.
1. Community ecology
Introduction: historical development of community ecology; types of communities; characteristics of communities (growth, form and structure, diversity, dominance, trophic structure and dynamics);
Successions: primary and secondary successions; climax communities; patterns of tropical forest successions; models of succession (facilitation, tolerance, inhibition, random colonisation); mechanisms of succession (seed bank, establishment, growth, competition, herbivory); successions on bare ground (microbial communities, lichens, bryophytes, vascular species);
Primary production: patterns in primary production in tropical ecosystems; measuring primary productivity; factors limiting productivity (moisture, temperature, nutrients, light); relationships between diversity and production;
Community interactions: herbivory (types, effects on plant communities, plant response to herbivory); predation (predator-prey interactions and impacts on communities, models of predator avoidance behaviour); competition (types, competition concepts and models);
Community stability: terminology in analysis of ecosystem stability; diversity and stability; agricultural ecosystems; role of disturbance; intermediate disturbance hypothesis; plant response to disturbance; scale and frequency of disturbance; disturbance and patchiness; equilibrium models; non-equilibrium models; gaps and patches; impact of introduced species on native communities;
2. Ecological methods
Experimental method and design: hypothesis formulation and testing; experimental design; statement of the problem; selection of factors, selection of levels and responsive variables; choice of experimental design; types of experiments; basic characteristics of experimental design (replication, randomisation and blocking);
Sampling methods: sampling designs (simple, random, stratified random, systematic, multistage); use of spreadsheets for collecting and entering data;
Data analysis methods: assembling data into data bases; exploratory data analysis; comparison between samples (non-parametric and parametric tests); correlation and regression analysis; linear regression; curve fitting to scatter plots and model interpretation;
Research proposal: asking questions; literature review; problem statement; setting hypothesis; significance of research and expected outputs; description of research methods; data analysis methods; material requirements and costs; scheduling activities;
Suggested Practical Work
1. analysis of a plant community
2. estimating species of diversity of communities
3. experimental design
4. sampling design

This course provides fundamental knowledge of the processes and principles involved in the production of chemical products and the associated environmental issues.
By the end of the course students should be able to:
Classify chemical industries based on raw materials and chemical processes; Demonstrate understanding and describe the various processes and unit operations and examine their possible effects on the environment; Demonstrate understanding of the fundamental principles involved in the transformation of chemical raw materials into finished products
; Describe and explain various aspects of the production chlor-alkali, nitrogen, sulphur products, petroleum, soap/detergents and agrochemicals; Relate the effects of the manufacturing processes and products to the environment
1. Chemical Manufacturing Industries and the Environment
Classification of industries and raw materials,Chemical processes and unit operations. And Land, water, air and pollution.
2. Chlor-Alkali Industries
Manufacture of chlorine and sodium hydroxide, Soda ash, sodium bicarbonate ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and Environmental issues
3. Nitrogen Industries
Manufacture of ammonia (Haber process) and ammonium compounds, Nitrogen inorganic, compounds as agricultural fertilisers and Environmental issues
4. Sulphur Industries
Manufacture of sulphuric acid (contact process), Sulphur dioxide pollution and acid rain and Environmental issues
5. Petroleum
Origins of fossil fuels and petroleum refining, Petroleum products and the environment (greenhouse effect) and Production of biofuels as renewable energy resource.
6. Soaps and Detergents
Manufacturing of soaps: Raw materials, saponification process, additives- builders and perfumes, manufacturing process and Manufacturing of detergents: Raw materials, detergent powders, additives manufacturing process
7. Agricultural chemicals
Pesticides, Classification of pesticides, Natural and synthetic insecticides.Mechanism of action, Mode of application and Herbicides
Under school of business studies
The aim of the course is to develop skills and ability in students in information and communication technology systems.
This is an introduction to the application of computers in business. It covers discussions on basic computer concepts, including history of the computer, computer hardware and software, and finally current trends and issues in Information Technology. It also includes practical exposure to selected software applications.
There will be THREE hours of lectures and TWO lab hours per week.
By the end of the course, students should be able to:
To expose students to computer terminology; To present the impact of computers on our present day society; To introduce students to practical usage of computer systems; To prepare students for future encounters with computing and information processing concepts in the workplace; To gain s deeper understanding of the mathematical concepts in computer architecture; Demonstrate an understanding of information and communication technology; Use information and communication technology to solve business related problems; Use a computer to prepare business documents.
1. Basics of Computing
parts of a computer, booting process, shut down, user interfaces, command line and graphical user interface
2. Introduction to Information Processing Concepts
Nature of data, Data Processing Cycle, Nature and roles of information, Management use of information, Role of ICT/IT in business, Information Society/Age and Qualities of information
3. History of Computing Equipment
Evolution of Computing Devices , Pre-computer age, Punched card information processing equipment, Introduction to office equipment and classification of computers
4. Computer Organisation
Von Neumann Architecture, Computer subsystems, Computer hardware, Computer software and Stored Program Concept (SPC)

5. Data representation
Character sets, Character codes, One’s and Two’s Complements, Signed Integer representation, Excess Notation and Introduction to Boolean algebra
6. Operating Systems
History and evolution, Functions of operating System, Survey of operating Systems and Components of Operating Systems
7. Micro Computer Applications
Productivity tools, Word processing, Presentations and Spreadsheets
8. Telecommunication & Networks
Meaning of telecommunication and Telecommunication services, Forms of telecommunications
, Postal services and Network Typology
9. Internet Technologies
Internet browsing and Services available on internet
B) Under humanities and social science the stand alone course was;

The aim of this course is to:
• develop within the students an appreciation of the environment and the related effect of development;
• provide integrated knowledge of current environmental issues.

By the end of this course students should be able to:
1. describe a historical development of the environmental movement.
2. give an account of environmental management techniques.
3. relate environment and development to sustainable development.
4. explain various techniques used in addressing environmental pollution and resource mismanagement.
1. Environment and development
definitions of environment and Development, physical environmental systems, environmental linkages to development, Historical perspectives of the environmental movement, environment and economic growth and Tradeoffs.
2. Population Interactions and the environment
Population theories and the environment.
3. Environmental planning and management
Environmental planning and Management concepts and Land use Planning.
4. Eco – development
The eco-development concept, principles of eco-development, organization, social-economic and ecological, Need for eco-development.
5. Sustainable development.
definitions of sustainable development, strategies for sustainable resources management, criteria for sustainable development and strategies for sustainable development in Africa.
6. Resource pollution and environmental degradation
The case in rural and urban areas, Physical Indices of environmental deterioration, Social Impact of environmental crisis and Environmental degradation in Africa: Leading issues and social perspectives.
7. Major resource management themes
The commons theme: Property rights, Externalities and environmental problems, Pollution and Pollution Management, Economics of Pollution control, Population and resources Instruments of environme and ntal policy.
8. Resource estimation and projections
Concept of carrying capacity, soil erosion and resources management, Rainforest depletion and management stability and Diversity and economical buffering.
9. Global change and related scenarios
Climate change and ozone depletion, Global environmental conversions and their implicationsart
,Trade employment and environmental implications and industrial relocation and transfer of environmentally sound technology
10. Urbanisation and the environment
Patterns and levels of urbanization in developing countries, The Urban informal sector and the environment, Urban poverty and the environment, urban transport and the environment, urban industrialization and the environment and Policy issues and management approached.
11. Agriculture and the environment
Food production trends of agricultural, lands and effects of unsustainable agricultural practices
, Agricultural development projects, Rangelands- management perspectives, sustainable agricultural development and international trade, Policy reform and environment quality.
12. Forest resources
Global issues, Dynamics of forests in Africa, Deforestation, Management approaches and Urban forestry.
13. Energy resources
Bio-energy resources and sustainable development, Bio- energy and environmental interactions and policy: social- economic and institutions.
14. Water resources
Water rights and permits, Water pollution: prevention and control, Water resources development and conservation.
15. Resource management and natural hazards
Flood hazards and Drought and Geomorphology in environmental assessment.
What is missing
Other courses in the institute do not have the specific topics for Climate change but are offering cross cutting issues for computer studies, communication and enterpreneurship as well as 21st century skills such as mathematics, business studies, historical skills, language skills, religious skills, special education skills, physical education skills, geographical skills, educational skills, civic educational skills, other scientific skills in which critical thinking is being promoted.
what is not known about the topics
Other courses apart from the stand alone courses for environmental education have no topics on climate change
what is needed in the country is to have a cross cutting issue on climate changewhich will eventually trickle down to our institute.