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    • Wilma
      Keymaster
      Post count: 16

       The five videos that you watched at the end of session 2 gave you some idea of

      (a) what is known about a topic, and

      (b) what is not yet known about a topic (in this case, climate change in Southern Africa).

      Use these videos to review what is currently included in your TE/TVET subject curricula on climate change in southern Africa, what is missing, and how you can review your curriculum to improve it

    • Mushinga wa Mooto
      Participant
      Post count: 8

      What is currently included in your TE subject curricula on climate change in southern Africa:

      1. In Sociology of Education and Child Psychology (SECP) course, there is a mention of Cross cutting issues. Cross Cutting issues are also mentioned in Guidance and Counselling
      2. The Students at ECE teacher education study a course called Environmental Science

      3. In the course Social Studies there is a topic on Population with subtopics on Settlement and Environment
      *** The avenue through which climate change issues can find themselves in the teaching and learning at Teacher Education level is available through the subjects mentioned above.

      What is missing:

      1. The mention of Cross Cutting Issues in SECP is so narrow and inadequate that it does not actually mention Climate Change or the consequences of climate change like temperature rise, unreliable rainfall pattern etc. The specific Outcomes list Cross Cutting Issues as Street Children, Gender, Poverty, HIV/AIDS, Child Labor and children rights. It does not attempt to show that even the listed Cross cutting issues can actually be consequences of Climate Change.
      The same cross cutting issues are mentioned in Guidance and Counselling
      2. There is a course called Entrepreneurship in ECE teacher Education. The course does not make mention of climate change in the selection of business ideas.
      3. The non mention of Climate Change matters in the syllabus for Environmental Science Education
      4. Social Studies syllabus is not elaborate on matters to do with climate change as this is primarily the course that deals with the way of life a people over a period of time. Although the course has topic/subtopics on settlement and environment, issues to do with Ecosystems and how they relate to the human adaptation and development do not come out at all.
      *** The Syllabus for ECE teacher education does not have the column on content which should further be subdivided into Knowledge, Competencies/ Skills and Values that the students should acquire and be able to inculcate into the would be learners

      How you can review your curriculum to improve it:

      1. Let the syllabus of SECP be candid on the cross cutting issues to include climate change and related knowledge.
      2. If business ideas be that important in the training of ECE teachers and that the business ideas are very important in the ultimate grooming of ECE learners in schools, then Climate change matters must be included in entrepreneurship course
      3. The course Environmental Science Education must be made to include the aspects of Climate Change in totality.
      4. Social Studies syllabus should be more elaborate on matters to do with climate change as this is primarily the course that deals with the way of life a people over a period of time.
      *** The Syllabus for ECE teacher education should have the column on content which should further be subdivided into Knowledge, Competencies/ Skills and Values that the students should acquire and be able to inculcate into the would be learners.
      With the inclusion of such a column it will be easy to insert matters of Climate change in many courses, topics or subtopics.

    • Chilufya
      Participant
      Post count: 10

      (a) what is known about a topic, and
      -Cross cutting issues appear as part of the syllabi in all the study areas in my TE.
      -Studies about the Environment and Climate Change are found in study area of Social Studies, under Geography.
      -Integrated Science deals with topics on the Ecosystems.
      -Home Economics involve the teaching of Nutrition.
      -There is a course for Entrepreneurship among the courses for Education and Professional Studies.

      (b) what is not yet known about a topic (in this case, climate change in Southern Africa).
      -Although cross cutting issues are part of the syllabi, how and what cross cutting issues are being addressed is not known.
      -The follow up of cross cutting issues being assessed is not done.
      -Entrepreneurship is in existence but does not include prevention of environmental degradation in business plans.
      -The general knowledge that relates to co-existence with other organisms and nature is not emphasised.

      Use these videos to review what is currently included in your TE/TVET subject curricula on climate change in southern Africa, what is missing, and how you can review your curriculum to improve it.

      -The curriculum must specify the cross cutting issues to be address by each study area in my TE.
      -Suggested methodology to cover the cross cutting issues would be of help.
      -Follow ups of whether the cross cutting issues are being covered and being included in the assessment schemes.

    • ngwenyafm
      Participant
      Post count: 4

      The videos are on effects of climate change. Due to climate change, we are facing floods, droughts and other problems. These problems are addressed in our curriculum. We teach about global warming and the environment. We look at man and the environment, the effects of man’s activities on the environment. There is also settlement, and reasons people settle in certain areas and why they migrate from the certain areas.
      Our curriculum addresses the issues of climate change. Urbanisation is also discussed and its challenges and effects on the environment.

    • Aubrey
      Participant
      Post count: 8

      (a) what is known about a topic
      – climatic changes are part of the cross-cutting issues that are usually covered only and just when they happen. In this case, Climate Change is visibly seen together with its effects today.
      – In my subject Art and Design, cross-cutting issues are covered and these include HIV/AIDS, Environmental Education, Health Education, Human Rights and Gender. In this case, Environmental education covers issues to do with climate changes and its effects on the environment.
      – Other study areas like Social Studies also looks at Population, Living together, the Environment, etc. where the climatic changes are covered either as positives or negatives to humanity.

      (b) what is not yet known about a topic (in this case, climate change in Southern Africa).
      – I think the current devastative effects are less pronounced in the curriculum on cross-cutting issues. Much of the content is mainly mentioning the emerging issues and gives less practical solutions to the problems. This means, as the climate changes, communities still do not have answers to the problems thus allowing the effects to grow beyond human capacity to end the effects.
      – The inter-relationship that exist between different ecosystems is not known by the community members thus acting in manners that affect the whole system when man becomes irresponsible on one. For instance, harvesting timber for making charcoal has adverse effect on the rainfall pattern which again affects human in terms of food growth.

      Use these videos to review what is currently included in your TE/TVET subject curricula on climate change in southern Africa, what is missing, and how you can review your curriculum to improve it
      *What is included:
      Weather patterns are part of the curriculum; the Environment (in terms of how to take care of the environment and what happens if it is not taken care of; causes of floods and droughts), the rain cycle; Population growth, etc.
      *What is not yet known:
      The causes of prolonged droughts, floods and high temperatures to abnormal levels. Most community members have not understood how systems are interconnected thus not understanding the origins of the devastative effects on mother earth and their regions.
      – Also how humans must adapt to the climatic changes that have brought more misery and call for a change in how we live and interact with the environment as human beings.
      *How I can review my curricula and improve it:
      – Include cross-cutting issues in all study areas and concentrate on what must be done to address the emerging issues instead of just making awareness.
      – Prioritize climate change as one of the most devastative emerging issue and seek for practical interventions to end its effects in all subjects.
      – Allow for more field trips on topics to do with climate changes so that students experience the effects first hand.

    • ANNIE PENDA
      Participant
      Post count: 9

      What is known about the topic
      Cross cutting issues are found in all the courses. however we have stand alone course for instance

      A) Under school of natural science there were courses like BIO 461community ecology and ecological methods, CHEM 490 Chemistry and the environment.

      COURSE CODE: BIO 461
      COURSE TITLE: COMMUNITY ECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL METHODS
      . AIM: This course provides knowledge of the ecological methods used in the study of ecology and conservation of indigenous plant and animal communities.
      Objectives:
      By the end of the course a student should be able to;
      Discuss and model functions of communities; evaluate the effects of introduced species on native communities; describe ecological community; describe sampling methods; design research surveys and experiments; analyse research data using statistical methods; test hypotheses and interpret; develop research proposal.
      CONTENT
      1. Community ecology
      Introduction: historical development of community ecology; types of communities; characteristics of communities (growth, form and structure, diversity, dominance, trophic structure and dynamics);
      Successions: primary and secondary successions; climax communities; patterns of tropical forest successions; models of succession (facilitation, tolerance, inhibition, random colonisation); mechanisms of succession (seed bank, establishment, growth, competition, herbivory); successions on bare ground (microbial communities, lichens, bryophytes, vascular species);
      Primary production: patterns in primary production in tropical ecosystems; measuring primary productivity; factors limiting productivity (moisture, temperature, nutrients, light); relationships between diversity and production;
      Community interactions: herbivory (types, effects on plant communities, plant response to herbivory); predation (predator-prey interactions and impacts on communities, models of predator avoidance behaviour); competition (types, competition concepts and models);
      Community stability: terminology in analysis of ecosystem stability; diversity and stability; agricultural ecosystems; role of disturbance; intermediate disturbance hypothesis; plant response to disturbance; scale and frequency of disturbance; disturbance and patchiness; equilibrium models; non-equilibrium models; gaps and patches; impact of introduced species on native communities;
      2. Ecological methods
      Experimental method and design: hypothesis formulation and testing; experimental design; statement of the problem; selection of factors, selection of levels and responsive variables; choice of experimental design; types of experiments; basic characteristics of experimental design (replication, randomisation and blocking);
      Sampling methods: sampling designs (simple, random, stratified random, systematic, multistage); use of spreadsheets for collecting and entering data;
      Data analysis methods: assembling data into data bases; exploratory data analysis; comparison between samples (non-parametric and parametric tests); correlation and regression analysis; linear regression; curve fitting to scatter plots and model interpretation;
      Research proposal: asking questions; literature review; problem statement; setting hypothesis; significance of research and expected outputs; description of research methods; data analysis methods; material requirements and costs; scheduling activities;
      Suggested Practical Work
      1. analysis of a plant community
      2. estimating species of diversity of communities
      3. experimental design
      4. sampling design

      COURSE CODE: CHE 490 COURSE TITLE: INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
      AIM
      This course provides fundamental knowledge of the processes and principles involved in the production of chemical products and the associated environmental issues.
      Objectives
      By the end of the course students should be able to:
      Classify chemical industries based on raw materials and chemical processes; Demonstrate understanding and describe the various processes and unit operations and examine their possible effects on the environment; Demonstrate understanding of the fundamental principles involved in the transformation of chemical raw materials into finished products
      ; Describe and explain various aspects of the production chlor-alkali, nitrogen, sulphur products, petroleum, soap/detergents and agrochemicals; Relate the effects of the manufacturing processes and products to the environment
      CONTENT
      1. Chemical Manufacturing Industries and the Environment
      Classification of industries and raw materials,Chemical processes and unit operations. And Land, water, air and pollution.
      2. Chlor-Alkali Industries
      Manufacture of chlorine and sodium hydroxide, Soda ash, sodium bicarbonate ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and Environmental issues
      3. Nitrogen Industries
      Manufacture of ammonia (Haber process) and ammonium compounds, Nitrogen inorganic, compounds as agricultural fertilisers and Environmental issues
      4. Sulphur Industries
      Manufacture of sulphuric acid (contact process), Sulphur dioxide pollution and acid rain and Environmental issues
      5. Petroleum
      Origins of fossil fuels and petroleum refining, Petroleum products and the environment (greenhouse effect) and Production of biofuels as renewable energy resource.
      6. Soaps and Detergents
      Manufacturing of soaps: Raw materials, saponification process, additives- builders and perfumes, manufacturing process and Manufacturing of detergents: Raw materials, detergent powders, additives manufacturing process
      7. Agricultural chemicals
      Pesticides, Classification of pesticides, Natural and synthetic insecticides.Mechanism of action, Mode of application and Herbicides
      Under school of business studies
      COURSE TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
      Aim
      The aim of the course is to develop skills and ability in students in information and communication technology systems.
      COURSE DESCRIPTION
      This is an introduction to the application of computers in business. It covers discussions on basic computer concepts, including history of the computer, computer hardware and software, and finally current trends and issues in Information Technology. It also includes practical exposure to selected software applications.
      COURSE PROCEDURE
      There will be THREE hours of lectures and TWO lab hours per week.
      Objectives
      By the end of the course, students should be able to:
      To expose students to computer terminology; To present the impact of computers on our present day society; To introduce students to practical usage of computer systems; To prepare students for future encounters with computing and information processing concepts in the workplace; To gain s deeper understanding of the mathematical concepts in computer architecture; Demonstrate an understanding of information and communication technology; Use information and communication technology to solve business related problems; Use a computer to prepare business documents.
      Content
      1. Basics of Computing
      parts of a computer, booting process, shut down, user interfaces, command line and graphical user interface
      2. Introduction to Information Processing Concepts
      Nature of data, Data Processing Cycle, Nature and roles of information, Management use of information, Role of ICT/IT in business, Information Society/Age and Qualities of information
      3. History of Computing Equipment
      Evolution of Computing Devices , Pre-computer age, Punched card information processing equipment, Introduction to office equipment and classification of computers
      4. Computer Organisation
      Von Neumann Architecture, Computer subsystems, Computer hardware, Computer software and Stored Program Concept (SPC)

      5. Data representation
      Character sets, Character codes, One’s and Two’s Complements, Signed Integer representation, Excess Notation and Introduction to Boolean algebra
      6. Operating Systems
      History and evolution, Functions of operating System, Survey of operating Systems and Components of Operating Systems
      7. Micro Computer Applications
      Productivity tools, Word processing, Presentations and Spreadsheets
      8. Telecommunication & Networks
      Meaning of telecommunication and Telecommunication services, Forms of telecommunications
      , Postal services and Network Typology
      9. Internet Technologies
      Internet browsing and Services available on internet
      B) Under humanities and social science the stand alone course was;
      GEO300 – ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

      Aims
      The aim of this course is to:
      • develop within the students an appreciation of the environment and the related effect of development;
      • provide integrated knowledge of current environmental issues.

      Objectives
      By the end of this course students should be able to:
      1. describe a historical development of the environmental movement.
      2. give an account of environmental management techniques.
      3. relate environment and development to sustainable development.
      4. explain various techniques used in addressing environmental pollution and resource mismanagement.
      Content
      1. Environment and development
      definitions of environment and Development, physical environmental systems, environmental linkages to development, Historical perspectives of the environmental movement, environment and economic growth and Tradeoffs.
      2. Population Interactions and the environment
      Population theories and the environment.
      3. Environmental planning and management
      Environmental planning and Management concepts and Land use Planning.
      4. Eco – development
      The eco-development concept, principles of eco-development, organization, social-economic and ecological, Need for eco-development.
      5. Sustainable development.
      definitions of sustainable development, strategies for sustainable resources management, criteria for sustainable development and strategies for sustainable development in Africa.
      6. Resource pollution and environmental degradation
      The case in rural and urban areas, Physical Indices of environmental deterioration, Social Impact of environmental crisis and Environmental degradation in Africa: Leading issues and social perspectives.
      7. Major resource management themes
      The commons theme: Property rights, Externalities and environmental problems, Pollution and Pollution Management, Economics of Pollution control, Population and resources Instruments of environme and ntal policy.
      8. Resource estimation and projections
      Concept of carrying capacity, soil erosion and resources management, Rainforest depletion and management stability and Diversity and economical buffering.
      9. Global change and related scenarios
      Climate change and ozone depletion, Global environmental conversions and their implicationsart
      ,Trade employment and environmental implications and industrial relocation and transfer of environmentally sound technology
      10. Urbanisation and the environment
      Patterns and levels of urbanization in developing countries, The Urban informal sector and the environment, Urban poverty and the environment, urban transport and the environment, urban industrialization and the environment and Policy issues and management approached.
      11. Agriculture and the environment
      Food production trends of agricultural, lands and effects of unsustainable agricultural practices
      , Agricultural development projects, Rangelands- management perspectives, sustainable agricultural development and international trade, Policy reform and environment quality.
      12. Forest resources
      Global issues, Dynamics of forests in Africa, Deforestation, Management approaches and Urban forestry.
      13. Energy resources
      Bio-energy resources and sustainable development, Bio- energy and environmental interactions and policy: social- economic and institutions.
      14. Water resources
      Water rights and permits, Water pollution: prevention and control, Water resources development and conservation.
      15. Resource management and natural hazards
      Flood hazards and Drought and Geomorphology in environmental assessment.
      What is missing
      Other courses in the institute do not have the specific topics for Climate change but are offering cross cutting issues for computer studies, communication and enterpreneurship as well as 21st century skills such as mathematics, business studies, historical skills, language skills, religious skills, special education skills, physical education skills, geographical skills, educational skills, civic educational skills, other scientific skills in which critical thinking is being promoted.
      what is not known about the topics
      Other courses apart from the stand alone courses for environmental education have no topics on climate change
      what is needed in the country is to have a cross cutting issue on climate changewhich will eventually trickle down to our institute.

    • Joalane
      Participant
      Post count: 7

      What is known about the topic
      – Climate change is a cross-cutting issue
      – Climate is changing rapidly
      – Adaptation to environmental hazards is critical and for that an ecosystem approach can be used to adapt to climate change
      – Global model outputs are too coarse to inform local actions/interventions

      What is not yet known
      – The extent to which climate change will affect different sectors at local levels.

      What is included in the subject curriculum
      A topic on global warming and climate change to climate change is covered in the course titled ‘Physical and Human Environmental Systems’. The topic covers issues about the impacts of climate change and also adaptation measures and strategies. Issues on climate change mitigation are also dealt with. These are normally at global scale but these videos gives one the information that will assist in integrating climate projections for southern Africa as opposed to talking about the global projections, for example at global scale the 2 degrees Celsius temperature increase is often quoted while in the case of Southern Africa this may translate to a 4 degrees Celsius temperature increase.
      Also, local level interventions have to be informed by information/outputs from regional climate models, so it is more appropriate to make use of regional model outputs as opposed to global model outputs which are at a rather coarse resolution.
      There is more information on local impacts to refer to as opposed to the global impacts.

    • Charles
      Participant
      Post count: 9

      What is known about climate change in Southern Africa
      The climate change situation is already worse in southern Africa than in most other regions. While the global average air temperature has risen by nearly 1°C since accurate weather records began a little over a century ago, in southern Africa temperatures have risen on average by twice this amount.
      Climate change has severely impacted Southern African vegetation over the last decades. Recent studies have shown that limiting the global warming level to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial level may reduce the catastrophic effects of anthropogenic climate change. However, there is limited knowledge on the response of vegetation to climate change at different global warming levels.
      Southern African nations must encourage the global community to radically reduce climate change to lower the risks to particularly vulnerable social and ecological systems.
      In view of the above, climate change issues have mainly been dealt as cross cutting, and appearing in many courses. However, in the Environmental Education course, this is very core and not cross cutting.
      What is not yet known about a topic (in this case, climate change in Southern Africa)
      Climate change seems to be relatively new and its effects are not yet comprehended by many countries. To this effect, in many courses, the effects of climate change are not well explained or interpreted with very few practical examples, thereby limiting knowledge on climate change. The implication of this is that many communities fail to prepare for climate change as they are not sure of what needs to be done. Communities are still grappling with causes of floods, droughts, and high temperatures.
      How you can review your curriculum to improve it:
      In line with what is in the videos, review the issues of climate change to understand them better, then review the current curriculum to consider what should be included to address climate change. In addition, endeavour to integrate climate change in as many course as possible with an increased number of field work to appreciate what is on the ground.

    • Claire
      Participant
      Post count: 10

      Videos watched are on effects of climate change and because of this, we are facing of problems such as floods, droughts, high temperatures, and other problems. These problems are addressed in our curriculum. The curriculum cover global warming and the environment. It explains how man and the environment interact, the effects of man’s activities on the environment. LIBES curriculum addresses the issues of climate change, Cultural belief and Urbanisation and their challenges and effects on the environment.

    • Claire
      Participant
      Post count: 10

      Videos watched are on effects of climate change and because of this, we are facing a lot of problems such as floods, droughts, high temperatures, and other problems. These problems are addressed in our curriculum. The curriculum cover global warming and the environment. It explains how man and the environment interact, the effects of man’s activities on the environment. LIBES curriculum addresses the issues of climate change, Cultural belief and Urbanisation and their challenges and effects on the environment.

    • Tsépo Sekaleli
      Participant
      Post count: 9

      The Department of Forestry and Natural Resource Management at Lesotho Agricultural College specifically under the Environmental Management course (FRMD115) discusses widely the topic of Climate Change. The course covers content that ranges from definition, causes of climate change, impacts, adaptation and mitigation strategies and the policy of the Government of Lesotho on climate change.
      What is missing in the curriculum with regard to climate change is the relative impacts of climate change that Southern Africa will face compared to other regions. That is to say, if the global climate temperatures were to remain at a constant level of below 1 degrees Celsius then Southern Africa will still be higher as indicated by CSIR future modelling. Therefore, Southern Africa has to increase its public sensitization programmes so that everyone understands how serious climate change is for the region.
      In this regard, the Department of Forestry stuff in the college have to meet and address the issue of missing content in the syllabus and agree on it being included and this being in line with the fact that its an important knowledge that learners should be provided with.

    • m.phakisi
      Participant
      Post count: 7

      a) what is known about a topic
      Climate change: In my pure science department course in Biology and Chemistry the concept of pollution and its effect including climate change are cross-cutting. However, reflecting on what is being taught I realise that its been so cut and dried according to what the textbooks says. Even the District school debates that are run by schools annually where students talk about climate change there is not much out of what is commonly known.
      b) what is not yet known about a topic (in this case, climate change in Southern Africa).
      I think We have not really taken it out of the classroom, into the communities where we talk about this with the village elders so they can tell us their stories so our students see climate change and its progress through the lens of our own context.

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